Kharlun

Field: "Kharlun"
Location: Russian Federation, Republic of Buryatia, Bichursky district
Area: 10.97 км²
Minerals: Fluorite
Reserves: Р1 are about 1,100 thousand tons of ore
P2 amounted to 2,000 thousand tons of ore
Р3 are about 15 thousand tons

Geographically, the area of ​​the site is located within the Mukhorshibirsky district. The nearest settlements are located: pos. Okino-Klyuchi 15 km southeast, pos. Ust-Kharlun 10 km southwest and the village of Kharlun 6 km south of this site. The Ulan-Ude - Kyakhta highway runs 30 km to the west.
This territory is part of the vast Baikal mountain region. The main orographic units of the region are the Zagan Range and the Khilok Depression. The absolute marks of the ridge heights are within 1100-1400 m, the depression - 600-900 m. The main waterways of the region are the Chikoy and Khilok rivers.
The Chikoiskaya depression, 10-15 km wide, is elongated in the northwest direction. The surface of the depressions is steppe with separate flat elevations; a significant part of it is occupied by floodplains of large watercourses and lakes. The main waterway of the region is the river. Chikoy.
The climate of the region is sharply continental with hot dry summers (maximum temperature +38 C) and little snowy cold winters (minimum temperature -45 C).
The average annual temperature is -50 C. The annual precipitation is 250-300 mm, more than half of which occurs in July-August. Snow cover sets in mid-October and melts in May. Seasonal freezing reaches 2.5 m, in some places insular permafrost remains.
The area of ​​the site is almost completely covered with forest. The vegetation cover of the ridges is typically taiga, larch forests predominate, pine is found on the southern slopes of the ridges. In river valleys, thickets of birch prevail, less often alder and aspen. The northern slopes are covered with small shrubs and wild rosemary. The steppe areas of the depressions are covered with forbs and represent spacious hayfields and pastures.
The fauna of this part of Buryatia is diverse. Elks, wild goats, badgers, lynxes, bears, wild boars, wolves, chipmunks, gophers, squirrels, and muskrat are found. Among birds - geese, ducks, wood grouse, hazel grouse, bustard, woodpecker, nutcracker, etc. Taimen, lenok, grayling, burbot, crucian carp are found in rivers and lakes.
The region is economically developed both in industrial and agricultural (livestock) directions. The bulk of the population lives in Ulan-Ude and is employed in industrial production and the service sector, a smaller part in agriculture. All large settlements are connected with each other and Ulan-Ude by asphalt and dirt roads.

Geological structure of the Kharlun site, its fluorite content and predicted resources of the area
Kharlunskaya ore area is located 10 km north-east of the village. Ust-Kharlun. In geotectonic terms, the site is located within the western closure of the Zagan uplift, in the zone of contact with the volcanics of the Margentui trough, and is confined to the area of ​​the junction of the faults of the northeastern and northwestern directions.
Meta-rocks, represented by gneisses and crystalline schists, are mapped on the area of ​​the site in the form of xenoliths in gneiss-granites of the Early Paleozoic. Volcanics of the Early-Middle Jurassic make up the northern and southwestern flanks of the area.
The meta-rocks and gneiss-granites contain veins of quartz, pegmatite, syenite-porphyry dikes, microdiorite, and basaltic porphyrites. The strike is northwest and northeast. Thickness - from 0.2-1.0 m to 3.0-5.0 m, length up to 300-500 m.
Mineralization at the site is represented by quartz-fluorite, fluorite veins, veinlets and breccia zones on fluorite, quartz-fluorite cement.
Their placement is controlled by a system of northwest-trending faults (340-3500) with a large number of feathering and subparallel faults, forming a tectonically weakened zone 800 to 2000 m wide, bounded by two structural seams 15-18 m thick, containing the richest quartz-fluorite veins. The zone is traced in gneiss-granites, meta-rocks and volcanics for 10 km. Within its limits, the manifestation of fluorite Svetlaninskoe, Mukhutokskoe, as well as numerous fluorine scattering halos were revealed.
The Svetlaninskoe ore occurrence is located at the western closure of the Zagan horst-anticlinal uplift, in the northern frame of the Chikoy-Khilok depression. It is represented by a series of fluorite, quartz-fluorite veins, breccias on quartz-fluorite cement in northwest-trending structural seams and subparallel fractures identified as fluorite-bearing zones No. 1 and No. 2 (Popov, 1990). The zones are separated from each other at a distance of 800 m, studied by ditches and wells along a network of 30-40 x 150-500 m.
Fluorite-bearing zone No. 1 (Western) has been penetrated over a length of 2200 m by ditches and boreholes. The zone has a complex structure and consists of two systems of discontinuities falling towards each other. In general, along the heaps of quartz-fluorite veins, the zone was traced for 5.5 km with a width of 15-50 m, the strike azimuth of the zone is 340-345 °. In one section of the zone, there are 5-6 quartz-fluorite veins with a thickness of 0.3 to 3.3 m in a halo of fluorite-bearing breccias with a thickness of 12.58 m to 17.24 m. The content of fluorspar varies from 15% to 70%. Along the dip, conditioned fluorite mineralization was traced to a depth of 60-100 m. In the central part of the zone, to a depth of 140-150 m.
To the east of zone No. 1, at 800 m, the fluorite-bearing zone No. 2 of the same strike has been studied. One quartz-fluorite vein with a length of 900 m with a thickness of 1.0-7.0 m was uncovered here, in a halo of fluorite-bearing breccias with a total thickness of 14-18 m. In general, the fluorite-bearing zone is traced for more than 6 km. The content of fluorite in the vein is 30-55%, mineralization can be traced to a depth of 110-150 m. Along the strike, the vein also gradually wedges out.
Since the fluorite-bearing zone No. 1 has a complex structure, it consists of two parts, when recalculating the predicted resources, 2 "blocks" were identified: B-1-a and B-1-b. When calculating the length of the "blocks" on the surface was taken equal to 950 meters, the average content of fluorspar, respectively, 41.5% and 34.4%, the average thickness is 1.0 m, the similarity coefficient is 0.2. Resources of category P1, respectively, amounted to 394 and 327 thousand tons of ore.
In fluorite-bearing zone No. 2, the predicted resources of category P1 by the direct calculation method amounted to 344 thousand tons. When calculating the length of ore bodies on the surface was taken equal to 900 m, the average content of fluorspar - 38.2%, the average thickness - 1.0 m, the coefficient of similarity - 0.2. The total resources of the Svetlaninsky manifestation in the P1 category are about 1100 thousand tons. ore.
The northern and southern flanks of the deposit have not been studied. According to geophysical data, fluorite-bearing zones extend beyond the study area by more than 10 km.
The predicted resources of the Kharlun area of ​​the P2 category, based on direct calculation, amounted to 2000 thousand tons of ore (the length of ore bodies on the surface is 1000 m, the average content of fluorspar is 38.0%, the average thickness is 1.0 m, the similarity coefficient is 0.1 ).
The forecasted deposits are suitable for open and underground exploitation with obtaining lump, gravity and flotation concentrates with a minimum content of harmful components.
The predicted resources of the entire Kharlunskoye site in the P3 category are about 15 thousand tons with parameters similar to the Svetlana deposit and the areal (volumetric) productivity coefficient of the reference ore object equal to 1.5 thousand tons / km2.

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